Thursday, February 6, 2020
Open topic - Essay Example Democracies can either be direct or representation. In direct democracy, the public is allowed to directly participate in their government. In representative democracies, citizens are always allowed to elect representatives who will represent them in the decision making processes. Despite being popular, democracy cannot be referred to as the best form of governance. This paper aims at proving that democracy has greatly failed as a form of governance. Democracy can be said to be faulty in the sense that it is a form of governance that it is always determined by what the majority wants and not what is good for the country. The question here is what will happen in a situation where the majority is wrong. This will mean that whatever will eventually take place will not be the best thing for the country at large. The majority can always be wrong as a result of misinformation or being fed with completely wrong information by influential figures for their own selfish gain. This will definit ely lead to a governance error that might haunt the country for decades affecting even generations that were not part of the faulty decision making (Diamond and Plattner 184). Democracy can also be said to be a highly expensive form of governance. There are a lot of resources that always go to literal waste during democratic processes. A country always spends a lot of money just trying to make sure that democratic elections are always free, fair, and accurate. Despite all these efforts, there are always complaints about elections not being free and fair. This would raise the question of whether democracy is really governance by the people as is commonly referred to. Other resources also go to waste in the form of resources used during election campaigns. These resources are usually used for the purpose of influencing the choices of the public during political elections. The resource used during the political campaign would rather be used for other activities that are much more profi table and productive. In comparison to a monarchy form of governance, democracy would be definitely unreasonable expensive. Democratic processes can also be said to be faulted by baseless preferences of leaders. Democratic elections involve a battle for supremacy of races, ethnic groups, religions and many other forms of grouping. People will always vote for certain candidates on the basis of their ethnicity, race, religion, and not their capability to be good leaders. This leads to situations where the ethnic, racial, or religious groups with the highest number of citizens always carry the day. The obvious result of such an election is a government that lacks diligence and expertise. As much as one group might pride of being successful during the elections, the consequences of having incompetent leaders will be faced by the whole country( Adler and Weismann 221). Democracy can lead to the imbalanced development in a country. Since the leaders are always elected by the majority, the y will always strive to those who voted for them at the expense of those who did not vote for them. For instance, if a leader was highly voted for in a certain region of the country and rejected in others, they will always tend to favor those who voted for them when it comes to developmental projects. This is mainly due to human nature, which makes it almost impossible for a person to respond to bad deeds with good ones. In the same manner, it will be
Tuesday, January 28, 2020
Revolution(s) in Latin America from Bolivia to Chile Essay This paper will deal briefly with the revolutionary movement in Latin America in the mid 20th Century. It will compare and contrast Bolivia, Cuba, Chile and Argentina and seek to draw lessons for today. Ultimately, Peron proved the most successful model of revolution, and this only because of his strong ability to mobilize disparate elements of the population often left out of more doctrinaire Marxist movements. I. This paper will briefly deal with four related but distinct elements: first, the revolution in Bolivia in 1952, the revolution in Cuba a short time later, and the failed revolution in Chile after the 1970 elections. After this, it will deal with the Peron regime in Argentina. Given all this, this paper will attempt to compare and contrast these movements, looking at US as well as Soviet policy relative to them, and see what modern policymakers can take from these immensely important events. The Bolivian revolution of 1952 was one of the first major earthshaking events in post World War II Latin America. Bolivia was an economic disaster since the war (and before) dependent largely on tin exports and a small amount of coffee for economic survival (Cockcroft, 1997). Like all three revolutions dealt within this section, the big issue was the ownership of land. In countries largely made up of peasants, this was the greatest issue. In all three of these states, the land was owned in large parcels, by a small oligarchy that had connections with the government. This was the key in all three revolutions (Kohl, 1978). One issue that sets Bolivia apart was the fact that the army was rather uninterested in pursuing a battle against the revolutionaries, who, unlike the Chilean case, were far from Ã¢â¬Å"MarxistÃ¢â¬ in ideological orientation (Kohl, 1978, 239). The revolutionary movement (MNR) was both nationalist and socialist in orientation, seeking an independent and prosperous Bolivia independent of both USSR and USA. The basic platform of the Nationalist Revolutionary Movement was land reform first of all, the nationalization of the tin industry and free elections. The connection with the USA was seen by the MNR as a link between to so-called Ã¢â¬Å"tin baronsÃ¢â¬ and the army through US aid. This was a similar view in Cuba. After a brief period of fighting, roughly the middle of April in 1952, the main urban centers fell to the revolutionary movement with the help of miners and other urban workers (the farmers took little part) who were armed by the MNR (Kohl, 1978). The army had no stomach for a fight, and put up token resistance. It was not long before the founder of the MNR, Victor Paz Estemssono, took power as president, and immediately purged the army and engaged in land reform. Universal suffrage was quickly instituted by the new government, and the tin mines were brought under state control. It is clear in hindsight that military personnel were involved in the initial uprising in early April in 1952, the army saw no threat in the nationalist movement and was loathe to fight it. This was to make the Bolivian revolution different from the revolutions in Cuba and Chile (cf. Gerassi, 1965, esp ch 16). In Cuba, 1953, the economic situation was the same for the peasants, but not for the economy as a whole. Unlike the depressed Bolivian situation, the Cuban economy was booming in 1953, except for the fact that the boom did not affect the middle and lower sectors of the peasantry. The economic boom was based on several things: the endless American demand for sugar, the investment of the Batista government in tourism and gambling (similar to Lebanon at the same time), and the presence of a substantial Jewish and Italian organized crime who ran drugs out of the island (Blasier, 1967). Nevertheless, the peasants were largely illiterate and suffering from hunger and disease, similar to that of Bolivia. Like all the revolutions dealt with here, land imbalance was the key. Here, the sugar plantations were in the hands of domestic and foreign oligarchs, Like Tin in Bolivia or Copper in Chile, in Cuba, the revolutionary movement, modeled after that of the MNR in Bolivia (that is, both nationalist and socialist), sought land reform and free elections. The Batista government had rigged elections for some time to make sure him and his military cronies were placed in power regularly (Cockcroft, 1997). Unlike the Bolivian case, the Cuban army was basically loyal to Batista and fought the revolutionaries for some time. The US government did place some pressure on the Cuban leader to hold free elections, which he largely refused to do, leading the CIA to offer some limited financial support to Castro early on (Blasier, 1967). Ultimately, the revolutionaries forced Batista to flee to the US, and the army took over more fully, leading to a protracted war. Hidden in the mountains and fields of southeastern Cuba, the revolutionaries defeated BatistaÃ¢â¬â¢s small and poorly coordinated offensive. The US posture was uncertain until substantial aid developed from the USSR, and, after CastroÃ¢â¬â¢s victory, nationalization of sugar plantations and other assets deprived Cubans and Americans of their former fortunes (Marfelli, 1998). Unlike the Bolivian case, free elections were never held. Chile paints a similar picture. Like the other two states dealt with here, Chile was also a one resource exporter, in her case, copper. The revolution, which did not succeed, begins at the elections of 1970, where the semi-Marxist Salvador Allende received roughly 36% of the vote in a tightly contested three way race. Hardly a ringing endorsement, the KGB as well as the CIA back differing parties in this contest. Both intelligence agencies saw Chile and its copper as a major strategic asset, and both wanted to see Chile in their sphere of influence. The difference being that the CIA spent money to defeat Allende (in general), the Soviets spent money to elect Allende (specifically), even giving him a private salary while on the campaign trail. Allende will never get more than 40% of the vote, and hence, more radical measures were necessary (Leonov, 2005). AllendeÃ¢â¬â¢s victory was a blow to US interests, and Richard Nixon set his face against the new government, who quickly permitted a substantial KGB presence in the country and allied himself with Castro. Even more, the Allende government nationalized the copper mines and engaged in some limited land reform, like all the above. AllendeÃ¢â¬â¢s policies, however, created substantial economic downturns in Chile: while attempting to raise wages, he increased inflation. Price fixing brought shortages of necessary items to Santiago and other important urban areas. Unemployment went up, and copper exports fell. Soon, the army and many citizens were opposed to the government that was seen to be artificially propped up by Soviet subsidies. The fact that the opposition parties were contesting the election did not help matters, and in the two elections before AllendeÃ¢â¬â¢s death, he received no more than 40% of the vote in tight races. The famous coup that brought General Pinochet to power was the result. (Leonov, 2005). These three revolutionary movements, briefly sketched above, contain many important similarities to one another. In all cases, the governments that preceded the revolutions were basically oligarchic: a small number of wealthy controlling a substantially disproportionate share of wealth. Each of these governments was largely militarized and the military was seen as basically supporting the state (with some hesitation in Bolivia). Each of the governments before the revolutionaries seem rather a-ideological, more or less existing to collect taxes and keep a certain group in power. In each case, the armies were basically autonomous forces, making decisions more or less apart from the states that allegedly controlled them. All three states were basically single-resource dependent which harms the sovereignty of the state. Decisions cannot be made autonomously when the entire stateÃ¢â¬â¢s economy is based on copper markets (for example) that exist far outside the country. The revolutionary movements also have substantial similarities. Both were ideologically nationalist as well as socialist, both in the broad sense of the terms. They sought a redistribution of land and nationalization of the main source of national income: tin, sugar, copper. All of these movements sought violent measures to take power. Even the Allende government used his Ã¢â¬Å"red guardsÃ¢â¬ to confiscate the goods of the people they considered Ã¢â¬Å"rich,Ã¢â¬ to harm the black market. But as the Leonov lectures prove, all of these movements, legitimate or not, were hijacked by KGB forces and used to increase Soviet power in the area. Hence, whatever sympathy the US may have had with these movements (such as it had to the early Castro) quickly evaporated once the KGB moved in, putting the US in a bad position, having to appear as the Ã¢â¬Å"defender of the oligarchyÃ¢â¬ against the Ã¢â¬Å"apostles of equality. Ã¢â¬ It seems that the Soviets forced the American hand in these matters. There are also several differences within these movements. The posture of the army was important: in Chile and Cuba, the army was loyal, in Bolivia, they seemed to have no stomach for a fight. In all cases, the army was relatively small and poorly equipped. A well financed revolutionary movement could easily be a march for these rather unprofessional military forces. The results of the revolution differed wildly. In Chile, the economy tanked. In Cuba, free elections were never held, and Castro held the country in an iron grip under Soviet subsidies. In Bolivia, the economy improved and land distribution was a fact. This is the greatest lesson of these movements: there is no guarantee of success. There is a guarantee that an old oligarchy is to replace a new one the unfortunate results of revolution. All the revolutionaries, with varying degrees of success, sought to improve the role of women in society and in the economy. To a large extent, the revolutionaries had a substantial share of women among their members. In Chile, the Allende government creates subsidy plans for free milk distribution to poor families, a policy difficult to argue with. However, when his price fixing scheme appeared early into his presidency, these milk distributions dried up, and families were forced to buy on the black market at inflated prices. Here, the female side fo the revolution was a complete failure, and mothers were worse off than before. It seems clear that the price fixing scheme was a failure and might well have been the main reason the revolution failed: shortages occurred and the black market sprang up. AllendeÃ¢â¬â¢s violent methods of dealing with these alienated many people. It is hard to see any real alterative (in 1973) in Chile for women than to support the coup and the freeing of prices for milk and other necessaries. II. Juan Peron is one of the most celebrated Latin American personalities. He contained within himself the true ethical content of the Latin American revolutionaries without being a revolutionary. Nonviolent and patriotic, he offered Argentina everything it needed politically. The Perons were part of Argentinian politics through the World War II era, and JuanÃ¢â¬â¢s position in the military government (as vice president under General Eldomiro Farrell) permitted him a platform to argue in favor of unionization and nationalism, in speeches and policies that made him wildly popular. Combining nationalism, patriotism and socialism, this set of ingredients was all that was necessary to bring a coalition of left and right into being over questions of economic nationalism and equality. The fact that he married a woman of lowborn status, Eva, the real power behind Juan (Van Dine, 1998) who used her popularity to engage in serious welfare programs and mobilization of the Ã¢â¬Å"shirtless onesÃ¢â¬ to her and her husbandÃ¢â¬â¢s side created a duo that has not been seen since. Peron was a man of his word. In his first term as president (until 1952) he engaged in a flurry of domestic policies that went beyond the socialist rhetoric of the revolutions described above. In the seminal work on Latin American revolutions by Gerassi (1965, esp. ch 3), he provides a provision list of the major areas of concern and policy for the Peron duo. PeronÃ¢â¬â¢s list of accomplishments is stunning: social security was made mandatory for each citizen. He was behind the creation of trade unions in every major Argentinian industry. He made certain that elections were free and that universal suffrage was the norm. Insofar as the treatment of women were concerned, he insisted on paid maternity leave, free medical care (especially prenatal care) and paid time off for all new mothers. He built recreation centers for all major industries, and made sure that paid vacations were the norm for all workers in Argentina. And this was only the beginning (cf. Gerassi for more details). Just as important, he sought the development of ArgentinaÃ¢â¬â¢s economic diversification. This is a substantial difference between Peron and the other movements dealt with above. The other movements did not have a substantial plan for diversification and were basically content to be one crop country. Argentina was not like this, there were too many resources to be mobilized, and such diversification became a major project of the Argentinian first couple in the 1950s. Peron was an amateur philosopher of sorts, and saw political ideology as more of a barrier than an impetus to economic performance and equality. His basic philosophical position was called Justicalisimo, or the Ã¢â¬Å"third wayÃ¢â¬ between socialism and capitalism that attempted to combine the positive contributions of both. This approach will be imitated by Nasser in Egypt and the Bolivian MNR. But it is precisely this approach to political things that makes sense out of his popularity: there was no prepackaged ideology to oppose. His was a mixture of the best of the left with the best of capitalism. Both of these were blended with an appeal to nationalism, patriotism and Argentinian sovereignty that was immensely popular. He was able, through his own personality as well as that of his wife, to mobilize both left and right over questions of economic nationalism and equality. Most certainly, his policies were not typical for Latin America or anywhere else. There are few people who can claim his mantle. This paper mentioned Nasser of Egypt, and is likely the only one who can claim this. Peron did not seek a violent revolution. He sought a revolution based in patriotism and national consent, a nation rebuilt around the Ã¢â¬Å"first couple,Ã¢â¬ who were iconic in their times and ours. This is a rare chemistry that cannot be imitated by professional guerillas or politicians of the typical stripe. The fact that he put his promises immediately into action and fought the wealthy of society made him more and more popular, and this popularity, ths ability to mobilize the population, is what made the oligarchy fear him, yet there was little they could do. The Eva Peron Foundation, a huge semi-official charitable trust, built thousands of schools and hospitals around the country. The government of Argentina was truly a family affair, mirroring the actual Argentinian family itself, it was iconic almost literally, in that they were ruled not by a junta, or a general, or a rich man, but a family. In this writerÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, PeronÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity was based on what he physically accomplished. But more than this, it was the mixture of patriotism and economic nationalism and equality. Since cliche Marxism is anti-patriotic and internationalist as well as anti-Christian, they naturally alienate many of these types of people. Peron did not do this, since he was nationalist and did not repress the church as did Castro. Hence, he was able to mobilize these people as well, adding to his popularity in a way that a Castro or Allende could not. There is so much material on this Argentinean leader that this brief description cannot do it justice. III. This paper has sought to deal with the question of Latin American Revolution in brief. It is clear by this time that this writer is partial to Peron, and sees his model as superior to the others dealt with above, and offers quite a bit of material for the future of Latin America. The revolutions of Cuba, Bolivia and Chile were, when all is said and done, failures. While correctly addressing many important issues, these revolutionaries simply became another oligarchy, or fell apart altogether (such as Allende). These states are still poor and underdeveloped, and only Chile has been able to control infant mortality with any success. The problems in all these countries were the same: one crop dependency, oligarchy, land hunger and poor infrastructure. Only Peron performed substantial moves to remedy this situation, but his later overthrow proved these abortive. Argentina was back where it had started. Cuba today is an economic disaster and a dictatorship, while Bolivia is no better off than in 1952. Nationalism, patriotism, autarky and economic equality are the wave of the future, while internationalist socialism(as well as border-less capitalism) is a relic of the past. Bibliography Kohl, James. (1978) Ã¢â¬Å"Peasant and Revolution in Bolivia, April 9, 1952-August 2, 1953. Ã¢â¬ The American Historical Review. 58: 238-259 Blasier, Cole (1967). Ã¢â¬Å"Studies of Social revolution: Origins in Mexico, Bolivia and Cuba. Ã¢â¬ Latin American Research Review. 2: 28-64 Perez, Marfelli. (1998) The Cuban Revolution. Oxford University Press. Leonov, Aledander (2005) Ã¢â¬Å"Soviet Intelligence in Latin America During the Cold War. Ã¢â¬ Lectures. The Center for Academic Publications. (http://www. cepchile. cl/dms/lang_2/doc_1140. html) Van Dine, Robert. (1998) Ã¢â¬Å"Evita Peron: Saint or Coutesan. Ã¢â¬ Vandine Publishing. (http://www. vandine. com/peron. htm; Van Dine is a career DC diplomat) Gerassi, John. (1965) The Great Fear in Latin America. Macmillan, 1965. (This work acted as background material for all the information above) Cockcroft, James D. (1997) Latin America: History, Politics, and U. S. Policy. Nelson Hall Publishers.
Monday, January 20, 2020
January 20,1969 Richard M. Nixon elected the thirty-seventh president of the United States 1969 Ehrlichman suggests to Caulfield that he leave the White House and set up a private security business that would provide security to the 1972 Nixon campaign. This project, Sandwedge, would be similar to the Kennedy security firm, Intertel. June 5, 1970 With the goal of increasing cooperation between various intelligence agencies within the government, a meeting was called in the Oval Office. Those in Attendance: Richard Nixon, J. Edgar Hoover, Richard Helms, and chiefs of the NSA and the DIA. Nixon aide Tom Charles Huston was assigned to work with the heads of these agencies to facilitate increased cooperation. early July, 1970 The Huston Plan sent to the President. This plan was an addition made by Huston to a plan endorsed by Hoover and Helms (NSA and DIA as well?). Huston's addition called for electronic surveillance, monitoring activities, surreptitious entries, recruitment of more campus informants, et al. July 14, 1970 Nixon endorses the Huston Plan July 27, 1970 Hoover visits John Mitchell. Mitchell hears about the Huston plan for the first time. Mitchell later goes to Nixon and urges the President to Stop the plan. Nixon later cancelled the plan. September 17, 1970 Mitchell met with John Dean. Mitchell discussed the poor job that the FBI was doing in the area domestic intelligence. This followed a conversation between Mitchell, Helms and others from the CIA on a similar topic. September 18, 1970 John Dean sends a memo to John Mitchell in which he offers a plan for intelligence gathering. "The most appropriate procedure would be to decide on the type of intelligence we need, based on an assessment of the recommendations of this unit, and then to proceed to remove the restraints as neccessary to obtain such intelligence." May 3, 1971 Following Nixon's decision concerning Laos, Anti-Vietnam activists attempt to shutdown Washington by blocking roads with stalled cars, human blockades, garbage cans, and other materials. The protests result in over 12,000 arrests. John Dean headed up the White House intelligence gathering during this protest. June 13, 1971 The New York Times begins publication of excerpts from "The Pentagon Papers". The Pentagon Papers was a 7,000 page document that was first commissioned by Robert McNamara in June of 1967 for future scholars to use. The Papers were leaked to the Times by Daniel Ellsberg. Although there were many crucial documents that were not included, the Papers did include documents from the Defense Department, the State Department, the CIA, and the White House. June 14, 1971 John Mitchell sends a telegram to the New York Times. Arthur Ochs Sulzberger President and Publisher The New York Times
Sunday, January 12, 2020
Red Bull has identified the best target market for its product at behavioral segmentation. Red Bull was set up by Mr. Dietrich Mateschitz and Mr. Chalerm Yoovidhya in Austria since 1984. It took another three years to adapt the blue-collar drink to appeal to a completely different market Ã¢â¬â initially, skiers and mountain snowboarders. Red Bull is non-alcoholic energy drink which adding only carbon dioxide, while retaining the original Thai ingredients of B-vitamins, caffeine, sugar, and the amino acid taurine to let it more refreshing in the beginning. Mr. Mateschitz found that their customers also included all-night disco dancers, cosmopolitans college students cramming for exams, and energy-burning sports enthusiasts across Europe and North America who cult Red Bull as contain a promise of improved their performance especially during the times of increased stress or strain. Thus, Red Bull is not just an energy drink it is primarily a utility drink to be taken against mental or physical weariness or exhaustion. That means use Red Bull to help in increase endurance and heighten alertness as well as reactions and generally spoken the use of Red Bull helps to cope with the challenges of every day life, which includes sports, work and leisure. I agreed that Red Bull has identified the best target market for its product at behavioral segmentation, especially in workers, athletes and Clubber. 1/ Worker Red Bull was popular with Thai truck drivers, rice farmers and work hard such as a manager or street worker to keep them awake while working long hours. Red Bull is non-alcoholic energy drink which concocting a caffeine-rich energy drink for them to get pushed up and would rather than a coffee. 2/ Athletes Red Bull supports over 240 athletes worldwide mainly in a diverse range of extreme sports, including kite boarding, windsurfing, motocross, freeskiirig, triathlon, mountain biking, hand gliding, cliff diving, beach volleyball, inline skating and paragliding as part of its promotion efforts. The athletes would find that Red Bull is usually a person who takes his sport very serious, what means he wants to get the best out of his body. Therefore Red Bull is part of his diet and sport life for him; it is a very good and easy way to import his endurance or speed. 3/ Clubber The typical Red Bull drinker is dynamic and active; the gender does not play any role at all. But it is more likely that more younger who like to go out fall for Red Bull. Research (PHT, 11/97 Smith Kline Beecham Energy & Sports Drinks Report) has shown that 53% of the people who drink energy/ sports drinks are within the age between 14-34 years. Moreover they found out that the main reason for purchasing energy/sports drinks were to quench thirst (37%) and give boost. Red Bull might target the other market segments at Generation Y types and Clubber in China. In the recent years, people willing to have a new taste in the good energy drinks that the Red Bull might target the other market segments which Mateschitz also concedes that the first generation of drinkers he wooed is now aging and Red Bull need to get a new generation of 16-year-olds on board every year. In market segments, Red Bull might target at Generation Y types and younger to develop the wide market especially for younger people and in China market, especially in Clubber, for the group of people in different events or activities to get fresh and energy to present the good performance. 1/ Generation Y Types and younger In recent survey of British marketers which dubbed Red BullÃ¢â¬â¢s effort as a Ã¢â¬Å"non-marketed brandÃ¢â¬ phenomenon during 1990s. Red Bull used Ã¢â¬Å"street teamsÃ¢â¬ to spread the word to important, trend setting Generation Y types. It carefully won over these hips influential set off a grass roots marketing wave. It also deploys Ã¢â¬Å"mobile energy teamsÃ¢â¬ to hand out free samples at places where people might need an energy boost such as in gyms, office buildings and construction sites. It would get a new generation of 16-year-olds on board continuous every year by TV commercials demonstrate Red BullÃ¢â¬â¢s stimulating effect on body and mind in a spirited, fresh, ironic and witty way to win the image and brand name in the worldwide market. / Market in China, especially at Clubber Red Bull should have a good chance to get the market in China, especially promote Red Bull and develop its image in Clubber as Stealth marketing strategy to win the a large marketing share percentage in China and good and health image in the market; younger people, dancer, and workers and office manger would like to have this energy drinks. Who is Red BullÃ¢â¬â¢s competitor? Red Bull is a non-alcoholic energy drink and there fore falls under the category of soft drinks. Thus, Coca-cola, Pepsi Cola and Anheuser Blusch were the competitors to Red Bull. These are big company and developed for several years of their soft drinks in different seasons or events.. Soft drinks can be divided into sub-segments and one of these segments is energy and sports drinks. These can be divided again into 3 different catagories; glucose energy drink; sport drinks and high energy stimulation drinks which also the direct competitors to Red Bull. Energy Drinks have become very famous in the last decade. During the last ten years, there were established hundreds of them around the world, such as Gatorade, PowerAde by Coca-Cola and All Sports by Pepsi Cola. All of them are marketed as energy spending and as very suitable mixer with alcohol. Although, the above are prepared to penetrate the market very soon, it is not easy to compare the image and brand name of Red Bull in the market, especially in Sport.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Child pornography is a broadly defined term mainly because there is no internationally agreed upon definition. There are also some conflicting laws between different countries that further complicate the issue of child pornography. It can become difficult to prosecute with the increased use of computers and anonymous online networks. Both the offenders and the victims can come from a wide range of social and cultural backgrounds. Child pornography includes pictures or videos that present children being sexually abused. Child sexual abuse is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"any act, by an adult, involving a child under the age of 15 years in sexual activity (Richards 2011, p. 1).Ã¢â¬ It tends to refer to a broad range of actions including touching, various types of penetration, and actions that do not involve touching such as exhibition and voyeurism (Richards 2011). Child pornography is defined as Ã¢â¬Å"any depiction of a child engaging in sexual actsÃ¢â¬ and a child is anyone under a given age, which can range from 16-18 years (Berlin Sawyer 2012). This is a more general definition, but the definition may be a little different depending on which country a person is in. This is part of what makes child pornography offenses difficult to study online (Samenow 2012). Child pornography is a big deal because vulnerable children need to be protected from exploitation by adults (Berlin Sawyer 2012). People that have an attraction to children or sexual fantasies including children are not new. What is new areShow MoreRelatedChild Of Rage : A Story Of Abuse924 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe documentary, Child of Rage: A Story of Abuse, the sexual abuse Beth Thomas lived through caused her to, Ã¢â¬Å"never developed a sense of conscious, love, or trust for anyoneÃ¢â¬ (Monet, 1990). Because of the early experiences, Beth grew up exhibiting inappropriate behaviors, especially toward those who were closest to her, in this case her family (Monet, 1990). A child is defined as a person under the age of 18 or in cases specific to sexual abuse the Ã¢â¬Å"age is specified by the child protection law ofRead MoreThe Debate On Virtual Child Pornography734 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesstated the ban on Ã¢â¬Ëvirtual child pornographyÃ¢â¬â¢ was unconstitutional, and in turn, The Federal Child Pornography Prevention Act was overturned. The parties involved are the disgusting, scum of the earth who produce this ungodly entertainment for sick minded pedophiles, the US Supreme Court who have taken an oath to protect the innocent, and the putrid pedophiles who watch this abomination of god and all that is evil. In addition to every child that ever was, and every child that will be sexually abusedRead MorePedophilia and Deviant Behavior1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGrant Pikes Peak Community College August 3, 2014 There exists a group of people possessing what some refer to as a mental disorder, while others refer to it as a personality or behavioral disorder characterized by the urge to have sexual relations with those of a non-consenting age. Initially this paper will examine why exactly this is a deviant behavior. We will then go on to analyze their structural organization. Why people would want membership in such a group will then be scrutinizedRead More The Morphing of Child Pornography Essay732 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMorphing of Child Porn Ã Ã Ã At issue before the Circuit Courts has been the constitutionality of the 1996 Child Pornography Prevention Act (CPPA) in which Congress sought to modernize federal law by enhancing its ability to combat child pornography in the cyberspace era(Free Speech). 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Likewise, millions of people are sexual assault victims themselves. With there being so many cases of assault, the criminal justice system is faced with the hard task of deciding on the correct punishment for the convicted offenders. One option of punishment for a male child molester is to have them physically castrated. Convicted male child molesters should most certainly receive strong punishment, but physical castration should be reserved for the worst cases of sexual abuseRead MoreSexual Assault Essay examples1113 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesSexual Assault described in technical terms is defined as any sort of sexual activity between two or more people in which one of the people involved is involved against his or her will. (3) The description of against his or her will extends to va rying degrees of aggression, ranging from indirect pressure to a direct physical attack. While sexual assaults are associated with the crime of rape, it may cover assaults which would not be considered rape. What constitutes a sexual assault is determinedRead MorePolice Enforcement Attempt to Catch Sexual Predators821 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesr112vid=1hid=104 The author here from the University of Central Florida studied law enforcement officers who work under cover chatting investigations to catch sexual predators. Tetzlaff-Bemiller conducted a sample consisting of 17 telephone interviews who were members of special units the law enforcement personnel used to catch sexual predators. The data that was collected consisted of multiple parts. The first part consisted of 12 questions where questions were asked about their backgrounds, howRead MorePsychological Dispositions: Pedophilia and Paraphilia Essay1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesParaphilia is a condition where sexual arousal is dependent on fantasizing about engaging in sexual behavior considered atypical or extreme (Psychology Today, 2014). Pedophilia and other paraphilia are viewed as mental illness that is abnormal, distasteful, weird, kinky and totally unacceptable by most people (Psychology Today, 2014). One of the most hated, reviled, and public enraging individuals in society is a pedophile. Most equate pedophilia with a sexual molester of children or some sortRead MoreEffects Of The Abuse On Young Adults1694 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesChild abuse is an all too common practice in the United States with over six million children affected every year (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2014). In 2012, 82.2% of child abuse perpetrators were found to be between the ages of 18-44, of which 39.6% were recorded to be between the ages of 25-34 (11 facts about child abuse, 2015). Child abuse is a real problem in this world. Child sex abuse includes body contact, such as kissing and oral, anal, or vaginal sex. Sex abuse can also
Friday, December 27, 2019
Leadership styles will vary in different situations for a coach. The same coach may have one style of leadership for different teams in the same sport depending on the playersÃ¢â¬â¢ ages, nationalities, gender, and personalities (Weinberg Gould, 2015, p. 212-213). To recognize the consequences of leadership using ChelladuraiÃ¢â¬â¢s model, the research to determine the type of leadership a coach should demonstrate for team satisfaction, should include satisfaction, cohesion, performance, and intrinsic motivation (Weinberg Gould, 2015, p. 213-214). There are five models of decision making in ChelladuraiÃ¢â¬â¢s model. This paper will discuss different types of leadership, the consequences of the different situations, and ChelladuraiÃ¢â¬â¢s models. LEADERSHIP Leadership is Ã¢â¬Å"the process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal (Weinberg Gould, 2015, p. 199).Ã¢â¬ The process of influence typically encompasses a number of behaviors that facilitate motivation in team members, where the coach focuses on getting team members to effectively work together in the pursuit of the common goal. There are a number of antecedents of leadership; personal and situational factors that affect leader behavior including age and maturity, gender, and the type of sport (Weinberg Gould, 2015, p. 212). A leader has to be able to adapt to the circumstances of each situation when working in a changing environment. As sports have new or unusual situations inShow MoreRelatedLeadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership857 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesproject shows that leadership is defined in many ways. Characteristics of a good leader are questionable. Leadership styles and theories, such as servant leadership, collective leadership, and dictatorship vastly differ but still share similar attributes. While servant leadership and collective leadership theories similarly encompass specific attributes, the collective leadership theory still lacks vision and empowerment. Inversely, at the other extreme of leadership theories is dictatorship. UnlikeRead MoreLeadership Style And Leadership Theory807 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesresearch conducted on traits, skills, and characters relationships to leadership and followers. The paper discusses the common themes and conclusions addressed in all studies . The articles penned with the intention of examining the impact leadership style and leadership theory in areas such as individual identity, culture, and worldview. Mahdi, Mohd, and Almsafir (2014) argue there is a significantly strong relationship between the leadership behavior and organizational commitment. Also, the paper synthesizesRead MoreLeadership Theories And Leadership Styles1512 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesprovide examples surrounding various leadership theories and leadership styles that sustain the definition of a public leader. First, this paper will provide a definition of a public leader. Next, it determine two leadership theories and two leadership styles that support the definition of a public leader. Also, this paper will assess the effectiveness of the two leadership theories. Subsequently, it will assess the effectiveness of the two leadership styles. Further, this paper will utilize properRead MoreLeadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership Essay873 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGenerally, leadership is the art or process of influencing followers and subordinates to achieve the organizational goals. It helps an individuals or a group to identify its goals and assists in achieving the stated goals. Because of importance of leadership all kinds of group action, there are considerable number of researches and theories on leadership and many kinds of leadership styles like Greatman theory, power influence, Trait approach, Behavioral, Situational or Contingency approaches;Read MoreLeadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership876 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesbstract This paper is to define the definition of leadership, and how its breakdown of various leadership styles and theories. I will also focus on more than one leadership style on what is to believe the best aligns thoughts of what leadership should mean. The leadership style is a mixed character of leadership that combines the transformational and servant leadership theories in to Healthcare. An evaluation is made of the learnerÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership characteristics and how they would enable the learnerRead MoreLeadership Styles And Leadership Theories993 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesto the other two leadership styles, I scored next highest in the delegate category and the least amount in the authoritative category. In this paper I will give a comprehensive overview of leadership styles and leadership management theories and how they relate to my style. Lastly, I will discuss my type of work environment, and three key actions or behaviors that I must demonstrate to be a successful leader. Alignment with management and leadership theories Leadership theories include trait, attitudinalRead MoreLeadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership1386 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLeadership is known as the process of guiding groups, individuals and an organization in the establishment of goals as well as sustaining those goals. The concept of leadership incorporates a diversity of clarifications, leadership styles and theories. While looking at the leaders around us no matter if itÃ¢â¬â¢s our president or place of employment, we often find ourselves questioning exactly why these individuals shine in these positions. This essay will detail my leadership in relations of the transformationalRead MoreLeadership Theories And Leadership Style920 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLeadership theories and Leadership Style In workplace condition, there are numerous dynamics which may affects a managerÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership style. The most significant features which will affect the choice of leadership styles or leadership behavior in a workplace condition need to identify. The most important factor which affects the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s leadership style is Ã¢â¬ËTaskÃ¢â¬â¢. The task is the real purpose of the team as well as the goals of the team. A managerÃ¢â¬â¢s upmost duty is to be certain that all team membersRead MoreLeadership Styles And Theories Of Leadership2172 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesThere are many leadership styles and theories. Ã Effective leaders are required to possess problem-solving skills, maintain group effectiveness, be dynamic, passionate, and be a motivational influence on others. Ã There are two leadership approaches that are most popular. Ã They are Transactional leadership and Transformational leadership. Ã A transactional leader is the traditional Ã¢â¬Å"bossÃ¢â¬ image (Yoder-Wise, 2015). Ã In such work environment, employees have an understanding that the superiors make allRead MoreLeadership Theories Of Leadership Styles4638 Words Ã |Ã 19 PagesLeadership theories The full spectrum of leadership styles is broad. The leadership styles continuum ranges from very directive to very non-directive: Autocratic, Benevolent Autocratic, Consultative, Participative, Consensus, and Laissez-Faire (Gibson, 1995). The autocratic leader an authority who make decisions or set goals and does not feel the need to explain them. The benevolent autocratic leader also rely on authority for decision-making, but may explain the thought process behind the decisions
Thursday, December 19, 2019
The Cold War Era Works Cited Missing The late 1940s to the mid 1980s the American society saw what could quite possibly be titled the biggest technological effect on society. This era, The Cold War, was a period in which fear of attack or invasion and a need to be superior reigned in the American society. It led to the development of space technology, during the Space Race, communication systems, and military technology in what has been appropriately deemed the Arms Race. On October 4, 1957  a huge change concerning technology in society occurred. On this date, the United Soviet Socialists Republic (USSR) launched Sputnik into outer space. The launch of Sputnik instilled a fear in the American society and an urgent callÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦NASA was not engineering in a new field; the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) and other government organizations had been working on the idea of space flight. These organizations were subsequently pulled into NASA upon its creation.  The main focus became developing technology that was steady enough and strong enough to support human life in space. The act of simply launching a rocket into space had been achieved over ten years before when Nazi Germany launched its first successful V-2 rocket in October 1942. The V-2 (Vengeance Weapon 2) rocket was built to shoot warheads at targets from a long range.  With the disastrous ability of the V-2 in mind, when Sputnik was launched, the fear of ICBMs (Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles) became a very prevalent part of American society. Families built bomb shelters in their backyards and stocked them with non-perishable goods to help them sustain life if they were ever attacked. Students and employees practiced air raid drills by crawling under desks and tables. An imminent fear of attack hung heavily in the air causing such historical events as the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban Missile Crisis. The entire era of the Cold War was spurred by a fear of the technology that the opposing country (either Russia or America) possessed; thus, the obvious effect of technology on the society of the times. The Cold War Era was not an era that revolved entirely around fearShow MoreRelatedThe Cold War Era1871 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesend of World War II, Europe was in ruins. Between bomb damage, economic downturn, and natural disasters such as droughts and blizzards it seemed nearly impossible to restore Europe to its prior greatness. America facilitated the recovery of Europe with military and financial aid and helped prevent the spread of communism, which is proven to overtake even the strongest countries in times of distress. This aid crushed the Soviet dream of a communist Europe, which set off the Cold War. Over the nextRead MoreThe Era Of The Cold War Essay2000 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages The era of the Cold War was a tumultuous time where conflicts arose in many aspects of American culture and international wars waged to prevent the spread of Soviet influence over other nations. U.S. foreign policy would see much intervention, where nations were used to engage in proxy wars. The United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ domestic politics would see much panic among congress and many senators, where the looming fears of Soviet influence and communist spies altered how politicians and lawmakers conductedRead MoreThe Cold War And The War Era1687 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Cold War era was an infamous time in United States history. The stand-off between the USSR and the US lasted nearly forty-five years, and began shortly after World War II had ended. Even though the USSR and the US had been Allied Powers during the war, StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s ruling of his country frightened the United States, and the USÃ¢â¬â¢s late entry in the war caused Russian resentment. The tension the Cold War caused t errified everyone and pressured the United States government to start preparing for desperateRead MoreThe Cold War Era1004 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Cold War was an era in which nuclear power was just beginning to be used to its full potential. It was still a fresh, new idea that mankind had not yet learned how to completely harness. Due to that, there were many mistakes made that were detrimental to the environment and humans themselves. One such situation in which that occurred was in Greifswald, East Germany. A nuclear power plant was built in Greifswald to power the surrounding area. It provided East Germany with ten percent of its powerRead MoreThe Cold War Era524 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pages Cold War The cold war started in 1945 and ended in 1989. It was a war between the United States and the Soviet Union. This war took place right after WWII and it is called the cold war because there were no real battles such as with tanks and bombs. The history on the United States in war is that before the cold war the United States had fought in 24 battles and they won 17 of them. The strength and the courage that the United States has when they go to war are unbelievable. Their win to lossRead MoreUS and the Cold War Era1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhile the U.S. maintained a relatively confusing agenda regarding foreign policies during the Cold War era, its attitudes are clearer in the present as globalization has strengthened connections between all international actors and made it more difficult for some to focus on maintaining hostile outlooks. The U.S. has had a long history with Syria and Israel, as the superpower has struggled to keep the two countries from abusing each-other and has, at times, provided the latter with significant financialRead MoreThe Cold War And Postmodern Eras1579 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAmerica is often said to envelop in culture of fear. American elites have established this supremacy by the means o f propaganda. From the Cold War to the War on Terror, these elites have maintained power along with the American Government to make sure they have control of their consumers. This has been accomplished with the establishment of an American foreign policy that has helped create a bipolar world. It allows America to focus on its interest and create a myth that the American people haveRead MoreThe Post Cold War Era1521 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn the post-Cold War era, the nature of conflicts and events that give rise to the need for humanitarian assistance have significantly evolved. For those caught in the middle of the Ã¢â¬Å"war on terrorÃ¢â¬ in the Middle East, or unprecedented violence in Africa, the need to build relationships with the spectator in order to motivate donations is ever present. The relationship between the spectator and the suffering has significantly changed in the past few decades and NGOs and individuals seeking to motivateRead MoreThe Cold War Era Essay987 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSince World War II ended, the United States has been involved in several other conflicts, all o f which were much further from total war than was the Second World War. Many of these were Ã¢â¬Å"small wars.Ã¢â¬ During the Cold War, the militaryÃ¢â¬â¢s goal was preparedness to fight two simultaneous major contingency operations. Once the Soviet Union disintegrated, and the United States emerged as the lone superpower, there appeared to be a period of peace on the horizon. The peace dividend never fully materializedRead MoreCold War Era Movie Assignment1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCold War Era Movie Assignment The movie/TV clips that we watched in class were all made between the years 1954 and 1964. World War II and The Cold War between The Soviet Union and the United States became the subject of many TV shows and movies of the time period. The paranoia and fear of communism and nuclear war was very real in the 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s/1960Ã¢â¬â¢s and it shaped the cultures of both the United States and the Soviet Union. You will be asked questions not only about the clips you will view but how